Reports

Completed reports are linked below. Links to additional resources are available at the bottom of the page.


PARAS 0001  Criminal History Records Checks (CHRCs) and Vetting Aviation Workers Guidebook (This document is password protected. Please contact jessica.grizzle@sskies.org to request a copy.)

Please see PARAS 0029 below for the most up-to-date version of this document.


PARAS 0002  Companion Design Guide to US Customs and Border Protection's Airport Technical Design Standards

The CBP Airport Technical Design Standard (ATDS) is currently being revised to keep pace with new processes and technologies. Many existing facilities where CBP operates may not be easily adapted to changing market and processing demands. This Guidebook was developed to provide airports, airlines, architects, and planners with guidance to build more flexible facilities and future-proof assets that may need to last many decades.

An accompanying website for this report is available here.


PARAS 0003  Enhancing Communication & Collaboration Among Airport Stakeholders

This Guidebook provides practical, hands-on, interactive material useful to Airport Operators for enhancing communication and collaboration (C2) among internal and external airport stakeholders. It is designed to fit the needs of a broad spectrum of airports, and is scalable to airports of various sizes and types. This Guidebook provides a tool to assess an airport’s current conditions relative to C2. It presents a practical step-by-step approach called the C2 Program Life Cycle for enhancing C2 among airport stakeholders.

Additional Files: Assessment Tool, Information Sharing Matrix


PARAS 0004  Recommended Security Guidelines for Airport Planning, Design, and Construction

This document was published in 2017 and represents the fifth iteration of guidance for the airport security planning and design community, first issued by the FAA in 1996 and 2001, and continued by the TSA in 2006 and 2011. PARAS 0028 (listed below) was published in 2021 and represents the most recent version of this guidance. 


PARAS 0005  Airport Perimeter Breach Classification and Post-Incident Best Practices

This document was developed for all FAR Part 139 airport operators to assist in their efforts to address perimeter security breaches. Specifically, the project developed a consequence-based classification model for perimeter security breaches that can differentiate the severity and risk of these breaches and enable airports to accurately convey internally, to the public, and to the news media the severity and types of breaches that occur at their facilities. This guidance document also provides best practices for post-breach activities.


PARAS 0006  Employee Inspections (Synthesis Report)

Airports have approached the subject of inspections and insider threat in different ways in order to be as effective and efficient as possible with very limited resources. At the time of this report, airports have developed best practices in order to accomplish the goals of the TSA-released Security Directives and Information Circulars that were based in part on the 28 recommendations by the Aviation Security Advisory Committee working group. Section 1 of this report focuses on the synthesis team’s interaction with the airports and airlines via surveys, emails, and follow-on interviews. Section 2 provides the best practices that were either volunteered by airports and airlines or were derived from the team’s follow-on interaction.


PARAS 0007  Quick Guide for Airport Cybersecurity

This Quick Guide is intended to help airport executives and managers understand that they are accountable for cybersecurity issues and must measure and improve their cybersecurity programs and capabilities. It provides meaningful and actionable information for airport managers to evaluate and improve their own cybersecurity efforts. The assessment tool that accompanies this document measures the airport’s cybersecurity risks and program maturity, and should be universally usable by large and small airports without additional software or hardware.

Additional Files: Assessment Tool, Customizable Project Briefing


PARAS 0008  Findings and Practices in Sharing Sensitive Information (Synthesis Report)

All airports generate important information that could be considered privileged but is not covered by federal designations such as Top Secret, Classified, and SSI. Airports must occasionally grant access to this non-regulated, privileged information to non-credentialed persons who have a need-to-know for work on airport projects, as part of the procurement process or for public information purposes. This synthesis report provides the findings and practices on effective ways that airports administer access, as well as control and recover information after it is no longer needed.


PARAS 0009  Guidance for Security Management Systems (SeMS)

This guidance was developed for those individuals, teams, or task forces who are responsible for establishing and maintaining an SeMS at their airport. It was written with a human-centered design approach; future users were consulted early in its development, influencing both content and format. Its purpose is to help you: 1) understand SeMS; 2) inform you of the benefits of SeMS; 3) help you determine whether your airport is ready to establish an SeMS and determine next steps on your SeMS readiness level; 4) guide you on establishing an SeMS; 5) inform you of the governance required to establish and maintain the SeMS; and 6) guide you on how to undertake quality assurance of the SeMS. The accompanying tool, linked below, should be used in conjunction with the guidance to measure your SeMS maturity.

SeMS Maturity Assessment Tool (SMAT) 


PARAS 0010  Guidance for Protecting Access to Vital Systems Impacting Airport Security

Airports host systems—such as access control, video surveillance, and telecommunications—that are vital to airport security and critical to daily operations. Ironically, while these systems provide security to the entire airport environment, measures to protect them are often overlooked, which could result in critical failure. This guidebook attempts to address the issues affecting vital security systems and empower airport operators with information, guidelines, standards, toolkits, and templates to overcome this threat.


PARAS 0011  Guidance for Airport Security Master Planning

This guidebook is intended to be used by airport management and staff, as well as security consulting organizations as a holistic approach to developing and implementing a Security Master Plan (SMP). An SMP enables an airport to systematically support the forecasting and planning of future security needs and the associated capital expenditures.


PARAS 0012  Guidance for Integrating Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into Airport Security

This guidebook is intended to be used by airport management and staff for the purpose of understanding the benefits of, and the processes for, the integration of UAS into airport security programs.


PARAS 0013  Minimizing Congestion in Public Areas to Mitigate Security Vulnerabilities

The objective of this Guidebook is to assist airports of various types and sizes to minimize traveler-related congestion that could be a viable target for acts of violence. The primary focus is crowd management during regular operations, though there is also guidance to minimize secondary targets created during incident response.


PARAS 0014  Blast Mitigation Strategies for Non-Secure Areas at Airports

This guidebook facilitates the implementation of effective blast-mitigation strategies in non-secure airport areas to reduce risks and effects of explosive attacks. Each airport faces unique constraints, such as different vulnerabilities and risks, and varying sizes and financial capabilities. Therefore, this guidebook is not prescriptive but instead provides a process by which airports can implement the most appropriate strategies.

Additional Files: Framework Tool, Framework Tool Instructions


PARAS 0015  Guidance for Airport Perimeter Security

The purpose of this document is to guide aviation professionals responsible for perimeter security at airports. While the primary focus of this guidance is on technical aspects of perimeter security and systems, such as perimeter intrusion detection systems (PIDS), the document also addresses important physical security methods as well as procedural and operational security measures to facilitate effective perimeter security.


PARAS 0016  Airport Security Vulnerability Assessments

This guidebook provides airports with a methodology and tools to support planning and conduct of airport-wide Security Vulnerability Assessments (SVA) addressing a broad base of malevolent threats. Supplemental Microsoft Excel-based SVA Tools are available to airports by request from jessica.grizzle@sskies.org. Please indicate small, medium, or large hub in your request.  


PARAS 0017  Access Control Card Technology Guidance

This document reflects the rapid evolution of security-related technology in the airport environment. Specifically, it covers the relatively narrow title field of access control cards. The guidance is intended to give the reader a working knowledge of the range of access control card technologies available, and the operational attributes and constraints of each, in order to aid in the selection of an appropriate upgrade or replacement technology.


PARAS 0018  Airport Security Training for Law Enforcement and Security Personnel

This document is a comprehensive training resource to assist trainers in developing curriculum specific to their needs. Master curriculum content provides overall context for the airport environment and highlights connections between regulatory requirements and job duties. 


PARAS 0019  Employee/Vendor Physical Inspection Program Guidance

Robust physical inspection programs play an important role in an integrated insider threat mitigation program. This report consolidates the information, recommendations, best practices, and lessons learned from developing and maintaining physical inspection programs that were gathered from dozens of published research documents and interviews from airports of all sizes, layouts, and demand levels. It provides several methods that could help an airport of any size or operation enhance their inspection program(s).


PARAS 0020  Strategies for Effective Airport Identification Media Accountability and Control

This document assists airports of all sizes in enhancing controls and accountability of airport-issued ID media. The document covers security controls during badge issuance and renewal; audit strategies; suggestions to mitigate lost, stole, not returned, and unaccounted-for badges; strategies to enhance badge retrieval; and Trusted Agent considerations.


PARAS 0021  Utilization of Autonomous Vehicles for Security at Airports

The report provides airport operators and security managers with technical, operational, safety, security, regulatory, and cost-benefit information to help them determine whether and how autonomous vehicles can address their airport security and safety requirements. It highlights real-world use cases drawn from both non-aviation and airport environments.


PARAS 0022  Active Shooter Mitigation and Recovery Strategies

This guidebook is a complete source for information on strategies for mitigating and recovering from an active shooter incident. An accompanying summary video can be found here.


PARAS 0023  Exit Lane Strategies and Technology Applications

The primary purpose of this document is to assist airports in researching, designing, procuring, and installing exit lane technology. It is designed to assist airports in all stages of deploying exit lane solutions and includes discussions on planning considerations, operational factors, testing, maintenance, training, potential configurations, compliance, and capabilities of available technology types.


PARAS 0024  Consolidated Receiving and Distribution Facilities at Airports

This document provides airport executives and aviation industry professionals with guidance on the key features, planning, development, and operations of a CRDF. The intention of this document is to provide information and resources for a broad range of airport types, sizes, and needs in addressing the movement of goods into a secure airport area for a wide range of airport stakeholders.


PARAS 0025  Security Regulatory Compliance at Tenant Facilities

This toolkit provides descriptions of tenant security practices used by a wide range of airport stakeholders, and can assist in airports’ assessments of tenant security responsibilities at their facilities. It explores the range of operational security challenges that tenant security agreements must address, and examines the approaches that have successfully met those challenges. The document also provides a collection of language from different agreements, lease structures, and local regulations addressing tenant security issues to assist airports in constructing their own agreements.


PARAS 0026  Insider Threat Mitigation at Airports

This guidebook is an all-encompassing source for information on insider threat mitigation at airports. Information in the guidebook aligns with the six ASAC focus areas of Threat Detection, Assessment, and Response; Aviation Worker Vetting and Evaluation; Aviation Worker Screening and Access Control; Training and Engagement; Information Sharing; and Governance and Internal Controls. An accompanying summary video can be found here.  


PARAS 0027  Guidance for Root Cause Analysis in Aviation Security

This guidebook provides airport personnel with a standard and systematic methodology for conducting RCA, along with supporting information and tools to facilitate that process. The RCA process presented will function as part of a larger aviation security system, and can be a critical enabler of the related vulnerability management processes, such as TSA’s Outcome Focused Compliance.

RCA Executive Briefing - This accompanying presentation can be used to provide airport leadership with an overview of RCA and its benefits.


PARAS 0028  Recommended Security Guidelines for Airport Planning, Design, and Construction

This document represents the sixth iteration of guidance for the airport security planning and design community, first issued by FAA in 1996, continued by TSA, and last published by Safe Skies in 2017. Where there is a relevant, industry-accepted and publicly available guidance document, this document will reference, summarize, and include a hyperlink to it.

A second version of this document is available with referenced guidance documents embedded to enable viewing from within this document in an offline state. Due to the large file size, that version of the document must be downloaded from DropBox here


PARAS 0029  Criminal History Records Checks (CHRC) and Vetting Aviation Workers Guidebook

This guidebook provides step-by-step guidance and reference material for individuals who conduct and adjudicate criminal history records checks required under 49 CFR §§ 1542.209 and 1544.229. The document includes an overview of the current regulations, along with suggestions and guidance for those airports and air carriers that want to exceed the minimum federal requirements.

This revised version, published in August 2023, reflects changes to the CHRC process since the Rap Back mandate has been in effect.


PARAS 0030  Guidance for Access Control System Transitions

This guidance document provides aviation professionals with considerations, pitfalls, and lessons learned during the Access Control System (ACS) selection, procurement, and implementation process. It includes information that applies to airports of various types and sizes that are considering replacing or upgrading their existing ACS, and aims to help reduce risks and costs associated with such an effort.


PARAS 0031  Airport Response to Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Threats

This guidebook has been created to assist airport operators with planning for potential threats from UAS operating in unauthorized airspace. An airport’s response to a UAS threat will be most successful when the response is planned, documented, and effectively executed by trained staff. Airport officials can utilize this guidebook to develop their own response plans that incorporate the unique characteristics and structure of their airports.


PARAS 0032  Enhancing Security of Cargo Operations at Airports

This document is intended to be a comprehensive resource to help airports and their stakeholders make well-informed decisions to ensure secure and efficient cargo operations. It discusses the regulatory context for air cargo operations requirements, and guidance and best-practices for security programs and measures. This document pays particular attention to the implementation of 3PK9 in a cargo operation.


PARAS 0033  Mental Health and Airport Security

This guidebook provides approaches for identifying and responding to incidents that involve stress or mental health concerns that can affect airport security. It recommends a stepped-response strategy, which uses the least intrusive but most effective techniques to respond to incidents.


PARAS 0034  Optimization of Airport Security Camera Systems

The purpose of this document is to provide guidance to help airports refine and/or develop their video camera program and program goals; review the use of their existing camera and recording technology; make well-informed decisions when optimizing, expanding, upgrading, or replacing their video camera system; and ensure continued effectiveness and efficiency of these systems.


PARAS 0035  Synthesis of Escort Privileges and Escorting Practices

49 CFR § 1542.211 gives airports the option to allow the escorting of individuals while they are in a TSA-restricted area. This document provides a synthesis of current practices to assist airports with decisions surrounding escort privileges and escorted-access options.


PARAS 0036  Airport Credentialing Efficiency Toolkit

This toolkit was developed to provide airport credentialing offices with methods and techniques to consider for improving their efficiency. The guidance includes research findings and recommendations in thirteen credentialing challenge areas, as well as strategies, best practices, checklists, and associated considerations to assist airports in assessing their processes and implementing changes to improve the efficiency of their credentialing process.

The following software tools are available as part of the toolkit: Staff Forecasting and Self Assessment


PARAS 0037  Planning and Operational Security Guidance for Construction Projects at Airports

Airport construction projects and their specific security considerations vary significantly based on the project location, complexity of the airport/project, number of stakeholders engaged, and scope. This guidance is intended to help airports integrate security considerations as part of the general project life cycle, as well as identify specific considerations and mitigation strategies that could be applicable under certain circumstances.


PARAS 0038  Airport Guidance for Identity Management Systems (IDMS)

This guidebook was created as a resource for airports to support informed decisions, from evaluating the need for an IDMS through planning, procurement, implementation, and operation. The guidance is based on information and experiences gathered from U.S. airport projects of various sizes, and provides best practices and lessons learned to enable the most efficient and effective delivery of IDMS.


PARAS 0039  Security, Operations, and Design Considerations for Airside Vehicle Access Gates

Airside vehicle access gates provide critical control points that allow access to the airside for the necessary movement of vehicles and goods. This report addresses all aspects of vehicle access gates, including gate layout, gate and barrier types, signage and signals, area security and access control measures, vehicle inspection technologies, gate operations and staffing strategies, training and testing, design and implementation, and project management and procurement.


PARAS 0040  Pandemic Response, Recovery, and Preparedness Planning for Airport Security Operations (Phase 1)

The objective of this research is to assist airports in making informed decisions regarding airport security operations during the COVID-19 pandemic and for similar events in the future. The document identifies lessons learned and best practices relating to exposure control, security integrity, and operational impact. It summarizes actions that were beneficial to security operations during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as opportunities for improvement. Phase 2 of this research is currently underway.

PARAS 0040  Pandemic Response, Recovery, and Preparedness Planning for Airport Security Operations (Phase 2)

Building on Phase 1, Phase 2 provides guidance to support communicable disease response and recovery planning for airport security operations, and to facilitate preparedness in coordination with existing response and recovery protocols in Airport Emergency Plans.


PARAS 0041  Security Considerations for Advanced Air Mobility (AAM) Operations at Airports

Understanding the evolution of Advanced Air Mobility (AAM) technology will enable airports to better prepare for integrating this new technology into existing security processes and protocols. This document provides an AAM market overview, potential operational models for AAM, and planning considerations for potential security impacts of AAM operations at airports.


PARAS 0042  Force Multiplier Strategies for Airport Law Enforcement

This guidebook serves as a comprehensive resource of force multiplier strategies to assist law enforcement agencies in effectively and efficiently accomplishing their varying responsibilities in the airport environment.


PARAS 0043  Security Operations Center Planning and Design

This guidebook provides a comprehensive approach to concept planning, designing, and building a Security Operations Center (SOC). It is applicable to both standalone SOCs and combined Airport Operations Centers.


PARAS 0044  Strategies for Aviation Security Stakeholder Information Sharing

This guidance was developed to assist airports in achieving more open information sharing. It provides insights on various types and sources of information, how to better collect it, and how to better share it within the constraints of measures designed to safeguard the information.


PARAS 0045  Implementing Biometric Technology at Airports

This guidance is intended to assist airports and their stakeholders in making informed decisions regarding the potential use of biometrics for various functions at airports, including aviation worker access control and passenger processing.


PARAS 0046  Security at Tenant and Third-Party Controlled Facilities at Airports

This guidebook builds on the information in PARAS 0025 Security Regulatory Compliance at Tenant Facilities and identifies security solutions with straightforward applications that can improve everyday tenant security operations and processes. It details the range of physical, technological, and procedural solutions available to airports and their tenants to increase security, streamline processes, and respond to some of the challenges they might face.


PARAS 0047  Practices and Considerations for Centralized Revocation Database Use

This guidance was developed to assist airports in making informed decisions regarding their policies and practices related to the Centralized Revocation Database for Individuals with Revoked Identification Media TSA-NA-21-01A. It includes strategies and considerations for the revocation of credentials, entering information into the CRD, and use of CRD findings. 


PARAS 0049  Creating and Maintaining a Strong Security Culture at Airports

This guidebook is a comprehensive resource of information and strategies to help airports build and maintain a strong security culture. Areas of focus include creating a security culture, community engagement and information sharing, workforce management, and assessing security culture. Options and strategies are summarized for each topic and relevant case studies are included. 


PARAS 0050  Public Safety and Security at On-Airport Rental Car Facilities

This report consolidates methods, strategies, tools, and technologies that an airport can use to enhance security and public safety, and reduce criminal activity at on-airport rental car facilities. Additionally, it offers guidance to help the reader determine which solutions are most appropriate for their specific environment, circumstances, and challenges. 


PARAS 0051  Guidance for Airport Security Exercises

This guidebook’s approach to developing a comprehensive airport security exercise program includes user-friendly, ready-to-use templates for planning, executing, evaluating, and documenting exercises. The guidance focuses primarily on tabletop exercises, drills, and functional exercises; however, the methods described can be used to develop other exercise types or to integrate security aspects into emergency exercises.

Appendix A ExerciseTemplates,    A-4 Master Scenaro Events List,    A-8 Improvement Opportunity Tracking List 


PARAS 0059  Enhanced Scheduling Tool for Aviation Worker Screening

The Excel scheduling tool and associated documentation are available upon request to jessica.grizzle@sskies.org


Links to Additional Resources:

Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport: Active Shooter Incident and Post-Event Response

TSA Checkpoint Requirements and Planning Guide

TSA Checkpoint Requirements and Planning Guide - Appendix A